Types of brain injury

An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury caused to the brain since birth. There are many possible causes, including a fall, a road accident, tumour and stroke.

Other forms of acquired brain injury include Traumatic Brain Injury as well as tumourstrokebrain haemorrhage and encephalitis, to name a few. The effects are often very similar to those of traumatic brain injury, but there are key differences that make treating and coping with acquired brain injury quite different.

Traumatic brain injury Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by a trauma to the head (head injury). There are many possible causes, including road traffic accidents, assaults, falls and accidents at home or at work.

Moderate head injury is defined as loss of consciousness for between 15 minutes and six hours, or a period of post-traumatic amnesia of up to 24 hours. Patients with moderate head injury are likely to suffer from a number of residual symptoms.

Severe head injury is usually defined as being a condition where the patient has been in an unconscious state for six hours or more, or a post-traumatic amnesia of 24 hours or more. Depending on the length of time in coma, these patients tend to have more serious physical deficits.

Effects and recovery

The effects of a traumatic brain injury on an individual depends on a number of factors such as the type, location and severity of injury. Symptoms can be wide-ranging, from physical effects such as balance problems, headaches and dizziness to cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects such as memory problems and anger.  

Where the effects of brain injury persist or cause problems, a person may be referred to rehabilitation services. Rehabilitation aims to help the brain learn alternative ways of working in order to minimise the long-term impact of the brain injury, and help the survivor and their family to cope successfully with any remaining disabilities.

How can Rehab Basics Help?

Most people make an excellent physical recovery after a brain injury.

  • Hydrotherapy
  • Improve Mobility & Balance
  • Assessment and guidance with Wheelchair and Mobility Aids Some people may need a wheelchair or other mobility aids, because their poor balance and co-ordination means they cannot walk without support. The fact that they use a wheelchair does not necessarily mean that the person cannot stand or walk for short distances.
  • Improve Spasticity & muscle weakness Limbs may be stiff or weak, and the range of movement limited. Often one side of the body is affected more than the other, depending on the area of the brain that is injured. Spasticity may cause pain or discomfort. 
  • Improve Weakness or paralysis Weakness or paralysis often affects one side of the body more than the other. This is known as ‘hemiplegia’ and is particularly common after a stroke.
  • Improve Ataxia (walking pattern) Ataxia is irregular, uncontrolled movement or tremor affecting the co-ordination of movements.
  • Improve Sensory impairment by Biofeedback Sensation of touch on the skin may be reduced, lost or exaggerated. It may also be difficult for the person to know where their limbs are positioned without looking at them. Odd postures or walking patterns may also be explained by sensory impairments.
  • Encourage and guidance around exercise to reduce fatigue Excessive tiredness is common to all severities of brain injury, including mild injuries.
  • Working with the doctors to help with prescription of medication.

Treatment Sessions are offered in clinics across Northamptonshire and Milton Keynes or at Home Environment.

For further information about our service or to book an appointment with Rehab Basics please contact us